AntWeb - programmatic interface to ant biodiversity data

Data on more than 10,000 species of ants recorded worldwide are available through from California Academy of Sciences' AntWeb, a repository that boasts a wealth of natural history data, digital images, and specimen records on ant species from a large community of museum curators.

Digging through some of the earliest announcements of AntWeb, I came across a Nature News piece titled "Mashups mix data into global service" from January 2006. The article contains this great quote from Roderic Page "If you could pool data from every museum or lab in the world, you could do amazing things". The article also says "So far, only researchers with advanced programming skills, working in fields organized enough to have data online and tagged appropriately, have been able to do this." In many ways this really is motivation for why we develop interfaces to these rich data repositories. Our express intent is to facilitate researchers explore amazing opportunities that lie within such data by lowering techinical barriers to use. Right on the heels of our most recent package (ecoengine), we are now happy to first release of an interface to AntWeb.

A stable version of our R package AntWeb is now available from CRAN. The API currently does not require a key for access but larger requests will be throttled on the server side. It is worth noting that much of these same data are also ported through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and accessible through our gbif package. This package provides a more direct interface to more of the ant specific natural history data.

Installing the package

A stable version of the package (0.7) is now available on CRAN.

install.packages("AntWeb")  

or you can install the latest development version (the master branch is also always stable & deployable and most up-to-date. Current version is 0.5.3 at the time of this writing).

library(devtools)  
install_github("ropensci/AntWeb")

Searching through the database

As with most of our packages, there are several ways to search through an API. In the case of AntWeb, you can search by a genus or full species name or by other taxonomic ranks like sub-phylum.

Data on ants

To obtain data on any taxonomic group, you can make a request using the aw_data() function. It's possible to search easily by a taxonomic rank (e.g. a genus) or by passing a complete scientific name.

Searching by Genus

library(AntWeb)
# To get data on an ant genus found widely through Central and South America
data_genus_only <- aw_data(genus = "acanthognathus")
  430 results available for query.
leaf_cutter_ants  <- aw_data(genus = "acromyrmex")
  713 results available for query.
unique(leaf_cutter_ants$data$scientific_name)
   [1] "acromyrmex versicolor"   "acromyrmex striatus"    
   [3] "acromyrmex balzani"      "acromyrmex coronatus"   
   [5] "acromyrmex crassispinus" "acromyrmex heyeri"      
   [7] "acromyrmex lundii"       "acromyrmex fracticornis"
   [9] "acromyrmex niger"        "acromyrmex nigrosetosus"
  [11] "acromyrmex rugosus"      "acromyrmex subterraneus"
  [13] "acromyrmex alw01"        "acromyrmex alw02"       
  [15] "acromyrmex alw03"        "acromyrmex alw04"       
  [17] "acromyrmex octospinosus" "acromyrmex lobicornis"  
  [19] "acromyrmex silvestrii"   "acromyrmex landolti"    
  [21] "acromyrmex ambiguus"     "acromyrmex hystrix"     
  [23] "acromyrmex laticeps"     "acromyrmex indet"       
  [25] "acromyrmex echinatior"   "acromyrmex volcanus"    
  [27] "acromyrmex disciger"     "acromyrmex aspersus"    
  [29] "acromyrmex pubescens"    "acromyrmex moelleri"    
  [31] "acromyrmex evenkul"      "acromyrmex hispidus"    
  [33] "acromyrmex nobilis"      "acromyrmex pulvereus"   
  [35] "acromyrmex lundi"

Searching by species

# You can request data on any particular species
acanthognathus_df <- aw_data(scientific_name = "acanthognathus brevicornis")
  2 results available for query.
head(acanthognathus_df)
  $count
  [1] 2

  $call
  $call$genus
  [1] "acanthognathus"

  $call$species
  [1] "brevicornis"


  $data
                                                                url
  1 http://antweb.org/api/v2/?occurrenceId=CAS:ANTWEB:casent0280684
  2 http://antweb.org/api/v2/?occurrenceId=CAS:ANTWEB:casent0637708
    catalogNumber     family  subfamily          genus specificEpithet
  1 casent0280684 formicidae myrmicinae Acanthognathus     brevicornis
  2 casent0637708 formicidae myrmicinae Acanthognathus     brevicornis
               scientific_name typeStatus stateProvince  country
  1 acanthognathus brevicornis                          Colombia
  2 acanthognathus brevicornis                                  
    dateIdentified habitat minimumElevationInMeters
  1                                              NA
  2     2013-09-12                               NA
# You can also limit queries to observation records that have been geoferenced
acanthognathus_df_geo <- aw_data(genus = "acanthognathus", species = "brevicornis", georeferenced = TRUE)

It's also possible to search for records around any location by specifying a search radius.

data_by_loc <- aw_coords(coord = "37.76,-122.45", r = 2)
# This will search for data on a 2 km radius around that latitude/longitude

Image data

Most specimens in the database have images associated with them. These include high, medium, and low resolution version of the head, dorsal side, full profile, and the specimen label. For example we can retrieve data on a specimen of Ecitoninaeeciton burchellii with the following call:

# Data and images for Ecitoninaeeciton burchellii
eb <- aw_code(occurrenceid ="CAS:ANTWEB:casent0003205")
eb$image_data$high[[2]]
  NULL

If you're primarily interested in ant images and would like to keep up with recent additions to the database, you can also use the aw_images function. This function takes two arguments: since, the number of days to search backward, and a type. Possible options for type are h for head, d for dorsal, p for profile, and l for label. If a type is not specified, all available images are retrieved.

# Retrieve only dorsal images for the last five days
head(aw_images(since = 5, img_type = "d"))
                                                                     high
  1 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914000/casent0914000_d_1_high.jpg
  2 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008677/antweb1008677_d_1_high.jpg
  3 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906977/casent0906977_d_1_high.jpg
  4 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914012/casent0914012_d_1_high.jpg
  5 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008691/antweb1008691_d_1_high.jpg
  6 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906997/casent0906997_d_1_high.jpg
                                                                     med
  1 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914000/casent0914000_d_1_low.jpg
  2 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008677/antweb1008677_d_1_low.jpg
  3 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906977/casent0906977_d_1_low.jpg
  4 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914012/casent0914012_d_1_low.jpg
  5 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008691/antweb1008691_d_1_low.jpg
  6 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906997/casent0906997_d_1_low.jpg
                                                                     low
  1 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914000/casent0914000_d_1_med.jpg
  2 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008677/antweb1008677_d_1_med.jpg
  3 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906977/casent0906977_d_1_med.jpg
  4 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914012/casent0914012_d_1_med.jpg
  5 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008691/antweb1008691_d_1_med.jpg
  6 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906997/casent0906997_d_1_med.jpg
                                                                     thumbnail
  1 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914000/casent0914000_d_1_thumbview.jpg
  2 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008677/antweb1008677_d_1_thumbview.jpg
  3 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906977/casent0906977_d_1_thumbview.jpg
  4 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0914012/casent0914012_d_1_thumbview.jpg
  5 http://www.antweb.org/images/antweb1008691/antweb1008691_d_1_thumbview.jpg
  6 http://www.antweb.org/images/casent0906997/casent0906997_d_1_thumbview.jpg
    img_type                                                catalog_id
  1        d http://www.antweb.org/api/v2/?catalogNumber=casent0914000
  2        d http://www.antweb.org/api/v2/?catalogNumber=antweb1008677
  3        d http://www.antweb.org/api/v2/?catalogNumber=casent0906977
  4        d http://www.antweb.org/api/v2/?catalogNumber=casent0914012
  5        d http://www.antweb.org/api/v2/?catalogNumber=antweb1008691
  6        d http://www.antweb.org/api/v2/?catalogNumber=casent0906997
            upload_date
  1 2014-08-15 15:11:14
  2 2014-08-20 13:52:13
  3 2014-08-15 15:11:14
  4 2014-08-15 15:11:15
  5 2014-08-20 13:52:13
  6 2014-08-15 15:11:15

It's also possible to retrieve unique lists of any taxonomic rank using the aw_unique function.

subfamily_list <- aw_distinct(rank = "subfamily")
subfamily_list
  [Args]: 
  rank = subfamily 
  limit = 1000 
  [Dataset]: [67 x 1] 
  [Data preview] :
  [1] apidae     bethylidae
  67 Levels: aenictinae agroecomyrmecinae amblyoponinae ... xylocopinae
genus_list <- aw_distinct(rank = "genus")
genus_list
  [Args]: 
  rank = genus 
  limit = 1000 
  [Dataset]: [490 x 1] 
  [Data preview] :
  [1] Aenictinae    Amblyoponinae
  490 Levels: Acanthognathus Acanthomyrmex Acanthoponera ... Zigrasimecia
species_list <- aw_distinct(rank = "species")
species_list
  [Args]: 
  rank = species 
  limit = 1000 
  [Dataset]: [1000 x 1] 
  [Data preview] :
  [1] basicerotini indet       
  1000 Levels: a abbreviata abdelazizi abdera abdita abditivata ... orizabanum_complex

If you work with existing specimens, you can also query directly by a specimen ID.

(data_by_code <- aw_code(catalogNumber="inb0003695883"))
  [Args]: 
  catalogNumber = inb0003695883 
  [Dataset]: [1 x 16] 
  [Data preview] :
                                                       specimens.url
  1  http://antweb.org/api/v2/?occurrenceId=CAS:ANTWEB:inb0003695883
  NA                                                            <NA>
     specimens.catalogNumber specimens.family specimens.subfamily
  1            inb0003695883       formicidae          myrmicinae
  NA                    <NA>             <NA>                <NA>
     specimens.genus specimens.specificEpithet specimens.scientific_name
  1   Acanthognathus                teledectus acanthognathus teledectus
  NA            <NA>                      <NA>                      <NA>
     specimens.typeStatus specimens.stateProvince specimens.country
  1                                       Heredia        Costa Rica
  NA                 <NA>                    <NA>              <NA>
     specimens.dateIdentified                       specimens.habitat
  1                2006-11-02 mature wet forest ex sifted leaf litter
  NA                     <NA>                                    <NA>
     specimens.minimumElevationInMeters specimens.geojson.type
  1                                  50                  point
  NA                               <NA>                   <NA>
     decimal_latitude decimal_longitude
  1         10.413477        -84.023636
  NA             <NA>              <NA>
# This will return a list with a metadata data.frame and a image data.frame

If you have a multiple specimen IDs, as is often the case when working with research data, you can get data on all of them at the same time. The function automatically retuns NULL values when no data are found and you can have these removed using plyr::compact (this happens automatically when you use a function call like ldply.)

specimens <- c("casent0908629", "casent0908650", "casent0908637")
results <- lapply(specimens, function(x) aw_code(x))
names(results) <- specimens
length(results)
  [1] 3

Mapping ant specimen data

As with the previous ecoengine package, you can also visualize location data for any set of species. Adding georeferenced = TRUE to a data retrieval call will filter out any data points without location information. Once retrieved the data are mapped with the open source Leaflet.js and pushed to your default browser. Maps and associated geoJSON files are also saved to a location specified (or defaults to your /tmp folder). This feature is only available on the development version on GitHub (0.5.2 or greater; see above on how to install) and will be available from CRAN in version 0.6

acd <- aw_data(genus = "acanthognathus")
aw_map(acd)

Distribution of long trap-jaw ants in Central and South America

Integration with the rest of our biodiversity suite

Our newest package on CRAN, spocc (Species Occurrence Data), currently in review at CRAN, integrates AntWeb among other sources. More details on spocc in our next blog post.

As always please send suggestions, bug reports, and ideas related to the AntWeb R package directly to our repo.

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